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Ivermectin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 92 studies
https://ivmmeta.com/
 
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 62% 92 134,148 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Primary outcome 54% 92 134,194 Mortality 51% 47 120,648 Ventilation 31% 17 33,082 ICU admission 45% 10 23,505 Hospitalization 33% 28 44,376 Recovery 45% 33 7,693 Cases 78% 15 13,297 Viral clearance 42% 29 3,945 RCTs 53% 42 11,237 Peer-reviewed 62% 72 122,243 Prophylaxis 83% 16 19,365 Early 62% 37 57,715 Late 43% 39 57,068 Ivermectin for COVID-19 ivmmeta.com Sep 2022 Favorsivermectin Favorscontrol after exclusions
Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, recovery, cases, and viral clearance. All remain significant after exclusions. 58 studies from 52 independent teams in 22 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (40 primary outcome, 38 most serious outcome).
Meta analysis using the most serious outcome shows 62% [51‑70%] and 83% [74‑89%] improvement for early treatment and prophylaxis, with similar results after exclusion based sensitivity analysis, for primary outcomes, for peer-reviewed studies, and for RCTs.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 62% 92 134,148 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Primary outcome 54% 92 134,194 Mortality 51% 47 120,648 Ventilation 31% 17 33,082 ICU admission 45% 10 23,505 Hospitalization 33% 28 44,376 Recovery 45% 33 7,693 Cases 78% 15 13,297 Viral clearance 42% 29 3,945 RCTs 53% 42 11,237 Peer-reviewed 62% 72 122,243 Prophylaxis 83% 16 19,365 Early 62% 37 57,715 Late 43% 39 57,068 Ivermectin for COVID-19 ivmmeta.com Sep 2022 Favorsivermectin Favorscontrol after exclusions
Results are very robust — in worst case exclusion sensitivity analysis 58 of 92 studies must be excluded to avoid finding statistically significant efficacy.
No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% effective and available. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. Multiple treatments are typically used in combination, which may be significantly more effective. Only 23% of ivermectin studies show zero events with treatment.
Over 20 countries adopted ivermectin for COVID-19. The evidence base is much larger and has much lower conflict of interest than typically used to approve drugs.
All data to reproduce this paper and sources are in the appendix. See [Bryant, Hariyanto, Kory, Lawrie, Nardelli] for other meta analyses with similar results confirming efficacy.
Highlights
Ivermectin reduces risk for COVID-19 with very high confidence for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, progression, recovery, cases, viral clearance, and in pooled analysis.
We show traditional outcome specific analyses and combined evidence from all studies, incorporating treatment delay, a primary confounding factor in COVID-19 studies.
Real-time updates and corrections, transparent analysis with all results in the same format, consistent protocol for 47 treatments.
    
  
A
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Chowdhury (RCT) 81% 0.19 [0.01-3.96] 14mg hosp. 0/60 2/56 OT​1 CT​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Dose (4d) Treatment Control Espitia-Hernandez 70% 0.30 [0.16-0.55] 12mg recov. time 28 (n) 7 (n) CT​2 Carvallo 85% 0.15 [0.02-1.28] 36mg death 1/32 3/14 CT​2 Mahmud (DB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.75] 12mg death 0/183 3/183 CT​2 Szente Fonseca -14% 1.14 [0.75-1.66] 24mg hosp. 340 (n) 377 (n) Cadegiani 78% 0.22 [0.01-4.48] 42mg death 0/110 2/137 CT​2 Ahmed (DB RCT) 85% 0.15 [0.01-2.70] 48mg symptoms 0/17 3/19 Chaccour (DB RCT) 96% 0.04 [0.00-1.01] 28mg symptoms 12 (n) 12 (n) Ghauri 92% 0.08 [0.01-0.88] 48mg no recov. 0/37 7/53 Babalola (DB RCT) 64% 0.36 [0.10-1.27] 24mg viral+ 40 (n) 20 (n) OT​1 Ravikirti (DB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.05] 24mg death 0/55 4/57 Bukhari (RCT) 82% 0.18 [0.07-0.46] 12mg viral+ 4/41 25/45 Mohan (DB RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.08-1.75] 28mg no recov. 2/40 6/45 Biber (DB RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.03-2.76] 36mg hosp. 1/47 3/42 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] 36mg viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 López-Me.. (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.11] 84mg death 0/200 1/198 Roy 6% 0.94 [0.52-1.93] n/a recov. time 14 (n) 15 (n) CT​2 Chahla (CLUS. RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.54] 24mg no disch. 2/110 20/144 Mourya 89% 0.11 [0.05-0.25] 48mg viral+ 5/50 47/50 Loue (QR) 70% 0.30 [0.04-2.20] 14mg death 1/10 5/15 Merino (QR) 74% 0.26 [0.11-0.57] 24mg hosp. population-based cohort censored, see notes CS​5 Faisal (RCT) 68% 0.32 [0.14-0.72] 48mg no recov. 6/50 19/50 Aref (RCT) 63% 0.37 [0.22-0.61] n/a recov. time 57 (n) 57 (n) Krolewiecki (RCT) -152% 2.52 [0.11-58.1] 168mg ventilation 1/27 0/14 Vallejos (DB RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.30-5.72] 24mg death 4/250 3/251 Reis (DB RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.49-1.55] 84mg death 21/679 24/679 Buonfrate (DB RCT) -211% 3.11 [0.13-73.3] 336mg hosp. 1/28 0/31 Mayer 55% 0.45 [0.32-0.63] 151mg death 3,266 (n) 17,966 (n) Borody 92% 0.08 [0.01-0.79] 96mg death 0/600 6/600 CT​2 SC​4 Abbas (DB RCT) -4% 1.04 [0.07-16.4] 84mg death 1/99 1/103 de Jesús Ascenci.. 59% 0.41 [0.36-0.47] 12mg death/hosp. 7,898 (n) 20,150 (n) CT​2 Manomai.. (DB RCT) 43% 0.57 [0.20-1.46] 48mg no recov. 3/36 6/36 Rocha (DB RCT) -187% 2.87 [0.12-67.5] 36mg misc. 1/30 0/26 Rezai (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.07-16.7] 84mg death 1/268 1/281 Mirahma.. (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.03-3.14] 24mg ventilation 1/131 3/130 Schilling (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-7.97] 168mg hosp. 0/45 1/45 Bramante (DB RCT) -197% 2.97 [0.12-72.7] 90mg death 1/408 0/396 OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.17, I​2 = 52.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 62% 0.38 [0.30-0.49] 64/15,360 239/42,355 62% improvement Shouman (RCT) 91% 0.09 [0.03-0.23] 36mg symp. case 15/203 59/101 Improvement, RR [CI] Dose (1m) Treatment Control Carvallo 96% 0.04 [0.00-0.63] 14mg cases 0/131 11/98 see notes CT​2 Behera 54% 0.46 [0.29-0.71] 42mg cases 41/117 145/255 Carvallo 100% 0.00 [0.00-0.02] 48mg cases 0/788 237/407 see notes CT​2 Hellwig (ECO.) 78% 0.22 [0.06-0.76] 14mg cases ecological Bernigaud 99% 0.01 [0.00-0.10] 84mg death 0/69 150/3,062 Alam 91% 0.09 [0.04-0.25] 12mg cases 4/58 44/60 IVERCOR PREP 73% 0.27 [0.15-0.48] 48mg cases 13/389 61/486 MD​3 Chahla (RCT) 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.80] 48mg m/s case 0/117 10/117 CT​2 Behera 83% 0.17 [0.12-0.23] 42mg cases 45/2,199 133/1,147 Tanioka (ECO.) 88% 0.12 [0.03-0.46] 14mg death ecological Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.33-0.76] 12mg symp. case 32/617 64/619 OT​1 Morgenstern (PSM) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.15] 56mg hosp. 0/271 2/271 Mondal 88% 0.12 [0.01-0.55] n/a symp. case 128 (n) 1,342 (n) Samajdar 80% 0.20 [0.11-0.38] n/a cases 12/164 29/81 Kerr (PSM) 70% 0.30 [0.19-0.46] 56mg death 25/3,034 79/3,034 Tau​2 = 0.45, I​2 = 81.8%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 83% 0.17 [0.11-0.26] 187/8,285 1,024/11,080 83% improvement All studies 72% 0.28 [0.22-0.35] 251/23,645 1,263/53,435 72% improvement Ivermectin COVID-19 early treatment and prophylaxis studies ivmmeta.com Sep 2022 Tau​2 = 0.29, I​2 = 71.5%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendix 1 OT: ivermectin vs. other treatment3 MD: minimal detail available currently5 CS: preprint censored, see details 2 CT: study uses combined treatment4 SC: study uses synthetic control arm Favors ivermectin Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Chowdhury (RCT) 81% hospitalization OT​1 CT​2 Improvement Relative Risk [CI] Espitia-Hernandez 70% recovery CT​2 Carvallo 85% death CT​2 Mahmud (DB RCT) 86% death CT​2 Szente Fonseca -14% hospitalization Cadegiani 78% death CT​2 Ahmed (DB RCT) 85% symptoms Chaccour (DB RCT) 96% symptoms Ghauri 92% recovery Babalola (DB RCT) 64% viral- OT​1 Ravikirti (DB RCT) 89% death Bukhari (RCT) 82% viral- Mohan (DB RCT) 62% recovery Biber (DB RCT) 70% hospitalization Elalfy 87% viral- CT​2 López-Me.. (DB RCT) 67% death Roy 6% recovery CT​2 Chahla (CLUS. RCT) 87% discharge Mourya 89% viral- Loue (QR) 70% death Merino (QR) 74% hospitalization censored, see notes CS​5 Faisal (RCT) 68% recovery Aref (RCT) 63% recovery Krolewiecki (RCT) -152% ventilation Vallejos (DB RCT) -33% death Reis (DB RCT) 12% death Buonfrate (DB RCT) -211% hospitalization Mayer 55% death Borody 92% death CT​2 SC​4 Abbas (DB RCT) -4% death de Jesús Ascenci.. 59% death/hosp. CT​2 Manomai.. (DB RCT) 43% recovery Rocha (DB RCT) -187% miscellaneous Rezai (DB RCT) -5% death Mirahma.. (DB RCT) 67% ventilation Schilling (RCT) 67% hospitalization Bramante (DB RCT) -197% death OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.17, I​2 = 52.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 62% 62% improvement Shouman (RCT) 91% symp. case Carvallo 96% case see notes CT​2 Behera 54% case Carvallo 100% case see notes CT​2 Hellwig (ECO.) 78% case Bernigaud 99% death Alam 91% case IVERCOR PREP 73% case MD​3 Chahla (RCT) 95% mod./sev. case CT​2 Behera 83% case Tanioka (ECO.) 88% death Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% symp. case OT​1 Morgenstern (PSM) 80% hospitalization Mondal 88% symp. case Samajdar 80% case Kerr (PSM) 70% death Tau​2 = 0.45, I​2 = 81.8%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 83% 83% improvement All studies 72% 72% improvement Ivermectin C19 early treatment and prophylaxis ivmmeta.com Sep 2022 Tau​2 = 0.29, I​2 = 71.5%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specifiedRotate device for footnotes/details Favors ivermectin Favors control
    
  
B
    
  
C
    
  
D
Figure 1. A. Random effects meta-analysis excluding late treatment. This plot shows pooled effects, analysis for individual outcomes is below, and more details on pooled effects can be found in the heterogeneity section. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. Simplified dosages are shown for comparison, these are the total dose in the first four days for treatment, and the monthly dose for prophylaxis, for a 70kg person. For details of effect extraction and full dosage information see the appendix. B. Scatter plot showing the distribution of effects reported in early treatment studies and in all studies. C and D. Chronological history of all reported effects, with the probability that the observed or greater frequency of positive results were generated by an ineffective treatment.
Introduction
We analyze all significant studies concerning the use of ivermectin for COVID-19. Search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), all individual study data, PRISMA answers, and statistical methods are detailed in Appendix 1. We present random effects meta-analysis results for all studies, studies within each treatment stage, specific outcomes, peer-reviewed studies, Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), and after exclusions.
We also perform a simple analysis of the distribution of study effects. If treatment was not effective, the observed effects would be randomly distributed (or more likely to be negative if treatment is harmful). We can compute the probability that the observed percentage of positive results (or higher) could occur due to chance with an ineffective treatment (the probability of >= k heads in n coin tosses, or the one-sided sign test / binomial test). Analysis of publication bias is important and adjustments may be needed if there is a bias toward publishing positive results.
Figure 2 shows stages of possible treatment for COVID-19. Prophylaxis refers to regularly taking medication before becoming sick, in order to prevent or minimize infection. Early Treatment refers to treatment immediately or soon after symptoms appear, while Late Treatment refers to more delayed treatment.
Figure 2. Treatment stages.
Preclinical Research
13 In Vitro studies support the efficacy of ivermectin [Caly, Croci, Delandre, Jeffreys, Jitobaom, Jitobaom (B), Li, Liu, Mody, Mountain Valley MD, Segatori, Surnar, Yesilbag].
8 In Vivo animal studies support the efficacy of ivermectin [Albariqi, Arévalo, Chaccour, de Melo, Errecalde, Madrid, Uematsu, Zheng].
5 studies investigate novel formulations of ivermectin that may be more effective for COVID-19 [Albariqi, Albariqi (B), Chaccour, Errecalde, Mansour].
Preclinical research is an important part of the development of treatments, however results may be very different in clinical trials. Preclinical results are not used in this paper.
Results
Figure 3 shows a visual overview of the results. Figure 4, 5, and 6 show results by treatment stage. Figure 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 show forest plots for a random effects meta-analysis of all studies with pooled effects, and for studies reporting mortality results, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization, recovery, COVID-19 cases, and viral clearance results only. Figure 15 shows results for peer reviewed trials only, and the supplementary data contains peer reviewed and individual outcome results after exclusions. Table 1 and Table 2 summarize the results.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ ALL STUDIES PRIMARY OUTCOME MORTALITY VENTILATION ICU ADMISSION HOSPITALIZATION RECOVERY CASES VIRAL CLEARANCE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS PEER-REVIEWED After Exclusions ALL STUDIES PRIMARY OUTCOME MORTALITY VENTILATION ICU ADMISSION HOSPITALIZATION RECOVERY CASES VIRAL CLEARANCE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS PEER-REVIEWED All Prophylaxis Early Late Ivermectin for COVID-19 IVMMETA.COM SEP 2022
Figure 3. Overview of results.
Treatment timeNumber of studies reporting positive effects Total number of studiesPercentage of studies reporting positive effects Probability of an equal or greater percentage of positive results from an ineffective treatmentRandom effects meta-analysis results
Early treatment 29 37 78.4% 1 in 3 thousand 62% improvement
RR 0.38 [0.30‑0.49]
p < 0.0001
Late treatment 32 39 82.1% 1 in 28 thousand 43% improvement
RR 0.57 [0.45‑0.73]
p < 0.0001
Prophylaxis 16 16 100% 1 in 66 thousand 83% improvement
RR 0.17 [0.11‑0.26]
p < 0.0001
All studies 77 92 83.7% 1 in 61 billion 62% improvement
RR 0.38 [0.31‑0.46]
p < 0.0001
Table 1. Results by treatment stage.
Studies Prophylaxis Early treatment Late treatment PatientsAuthors
All studies 92 83% [74‑89%] 62% [51‑70%] 43% [27‑55%] 134,148 978
Peer-reviewedPeer-reviewed 72 83% [73‑90%] 61% [49‑70%] 45% [25‑59%] 122,243 792
After exclusionsw/exclusions 61 82% [68‑89%] 69% [61‑76%] 55% [36‑68%] 117,841 656
Randomized Controlled TrialsRCTs 42 84% [25‑96%] 57% [41‑69%] 32% [12‑47%] 11,237 577
RCTs after exclusionsRCTs w/exc. 33 84% [25‑96%] 65% [53‑74%] 39% [15‑56%] 7,867 394
Table 2. Results by treatment stage for all studies and with different exclusions.
    
  
Figure 4. Results by treatment stage.
    
  
    
  
Figure 5. Chronological history of early and late treatment results, with the probability that the observed or greater frequency of positive results were generated by an ineffective treatment.
Figure 6. Chronological history of prophylaxis results.
    
  
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Chowdhury (RCT) 81% 0.19 [0.01-3.96] 14mg hosp. 0/60 2/56 OT​1 CT​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Dose (4d) Treatment Control Espitia-Hernandez 70% 0.30 [0.16-0.55] 12mg recov. time 28 (n) 7 (n) CT​2 Carvallo 85% 0.15 [0.02-1.28] 36mg death 1/32 3/14 CT​2 Mahmud (DB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.75] 12mg death 0/183 3/183 CT​2 Szente Fonseca -14% 1.14 [0.75-1.66] 24mg hosp. 340 (n) 377 (n) Cadegiani 78% 0.22 [0.01-4.48] 42mg death 0/110 2/137 CT​2 Ahmed (DB RCT) 85% 0.15 [0.01-2.70] 48mg symptoms 0/17 3/19 Chaccour (DB RCT) 96% 0.04 [0.00-1.01] 28mg symptoms 12 (n) 12 (n) Ghauri 92% 0.08 [0.01-0.88] 48mg no recov. 0/37 7/53 Babalola (DB RCT) 64% 0.36 [0.10-1.27] 24mg viral+ 40 (n) 20 (n) OT​1 Ravikirti (DB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.05] 24mg death 0/55 4/57 Bukhari (RCT) 82% 0.18 [0.07-0.46] 12mg viral+ 4/41 25/45 Mohan (DB RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.08-1.75] 28mg no recov. 2/40 6/45 Biber (DB RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.03-2.76] 36mg hosp. 1/47 3/42 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] 36mg viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 López-Me.. (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.11] 84mg death 0/200 1/198 Roy 6% 0.94 [0.52-1.93] n/a recov. time 14 (n) 15 (n) CT​2 Chahla (CLUS. RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.54] 24mg no disch. 2/110 20/144 Mourya 89% 0.11 [0.05-0.25] 48mg viral+ 5/50 47/50 Loue (QR) 70% 0.30 [0.04-2.20] 14mg death 1/10 5/15 Merino (QR) 74% 0.26 [0.11-0.57] 24mg hosp. population-based cohort censored, see notes CS​5 Faisal (RCT) 68% 0.32 [0.14-0.72] 48mg no recov. 6/50 19/50 Aref (RCT) 63% 0.37 [0.22-0.61] n/a recov. time 57 (n) 57 (n) Krolewiecki (RCT) -152% 2.52 [0.11-58.1] 168mg ventilation 1/27 0/14 Vallejos (DB RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.30-5.72] 24mg death 4/250 3/251 Reis (DB RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.49-1.55] 84mg death 21/679 24/679 Buonfrate (DB RCT) -211% 3.11 [0.13-73.3] 336mg hosp. 1/28 0/31 Mayer 55% 0.45 [0.32-0.63] 151mg death 3,266 (n) 17,966 (n) Borody 92% 0.08 [0.01-0.79] 96mg death 0/600 6/600 CT​2 SC​4 Abbas (DB RCT) -4% 1.04 [0.07-16.4] 84mg death 1/99 1/103 de Jesús Ascenci.. 59% 0.41 [0.36-0.47] 12mg death/hosp. 7,898 (n) 20,150 (n) CT​2 Manomai.. (DB RCT) 43% 0.57 [0.20-1.46] 48mg no recov. 3/36 6/36 Rocha (DB RCT) -187% 2.87 [0.12-67.5] 36mg misc. 1/30 0/26 Rezai (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.07-16.7] 84mg death 1/268 1/281 Mirahma.. (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.03-3.14] 24mg ventilation 1/131 3/130 Schilling (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-7.97] 168mg hosp. 0/45 1/45 Bramante (DB RCT) -197% 2.97 [0.12-72.7] 90mg death 1/408 0/396 OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.17, I​2 = 52.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 62% 0.38 [0.30-0.49] 64/15,360 239/42,355 62% improvement Gorial 71% 0.29 [0.01-5.76] 14mg death 0/16 2/71 Improvement, RR [CI] Dose (4d) Treatment Control Kishoria (RCT) -8% 1.08 [0.57-2.02] 12mg no disch. 11/19 7/13 Podder (RCT) 16% 0.84 [0.55-1.12] 14mg recov. time 32 (n) 30 (n) Khan 87% 0.13 [0.02-1.00] 12mg death 1/115 9/133 Chachar (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.44-1.83] 36mg no recov. 9/25 10/25 Soto-Becerra 17% 0.83 [0.71-0.97] 14mg death 92/203 1,438/2,630 Rajter (PSM) 46% 0.54 [0.27-0.99] 14mg death 13/98 24/98 Hashim (SB RCT) 92% 0.08 [0.00-1.44] 28mg death 0/59 6/70 CT​2 Camprubí 40% 0.60 [0.18-2.01] 14mg ventilation 3/13 5/13 Spoorthi 21% 0.79 [0.64-0.98] n/a recov. time 50 (n) 50 (n) CT​2 Budhiraja 99% 0.01 [0.00-0.15] n/a death 0/34 103/942 Okumuş (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.27-1.64] 56mg death 6/30 9/30 Shahbazn.. (DB RCT) -197% 2.97 [0.13-70.5] 14mg death 1/35 0/34 Lima-Morales 78% 0.22 [0.12-0.41] 12mg death 15/481 52/287 CT​2 Beltran .. (DB RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.29-2.56] 12mg death 5/36 6/37 Pott-Junior (RCT) 85% 0.15 [0.01-1.93] 14mg ventilation 1/27 1/4 censored, see notes Huvemek (DB RCT) 32% 0.68 [0.38-1.23] 84mg no improv. 13/50 19/50 Ahsan 50% 0.50 [0.28-0.90] 21mg death 17/110 17/55 CT​2 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 25% 0.75 [0.17-3.06] 36mg death 3/82 4/82 Hazan 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.15] 24mg death 0/24 synthetic CT​2 SC​4 Elavarasi 20% 0.80 [0.61-1.06] n/a death 48/283 311/1,475 Rezk 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.13] 72mg death 0/160 2/160 Lim (RCT) 69% 0.31 [0.09-1.11] 112mg death 3/241 10/249 Ozer 75% 0.25 [0.06-1.13] 28mg death 2/60 8/60 Ferreira -5% 1.05 [0.32-3.43] n/a death 3/21 11/81 Jamir (ICU) -53% 1.53 [0.88-2.67] n/a death 32/76 69/190 ICU patients Baguma 97% 0.03 [0.00-11.7] n/a death 7 (n) 474 (n) Mustafa 64% 0.36 [0.12-1.14] varies death 3/73 42/371 Shimizu 100% 0.00 [0.00-0.01] 14mg death 0/39 8/49 Zubair -9% 1.09 [0.33-3.64] 12mg death 5/90 5/98 Thairu (PSM) 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.14] 56mg death 0/21 4/26 Efimenko (PSM) 69% 0.31 [0.20-0.48] n/a death 1,072 (n) 40,536 (n) self-censored, see notes OT​1 Soto -41% 1.41 [1.16-1.76] n/a death 280/484 374/934 Ravikirti 3% 0.97 [0.74-1.24] varies death 53/171 254/794 George (RCT) 30% 0.70 [0.25-1.93] 24mg death 5/35 8/39 Naggie (DB RCT) -195% 2.95 [0.12-72.2] 84mg death