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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Ivermectin  COVID-19 treatment studies for Ivermectin  C19 studies: Ivermectin  Ivermectin   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Aspirin Metformin
Bamlanivimab Molnupiravir
Bromhexine Nigella Sativa
Budesonide Nitazoxanide
Casirivimab/i.. Povidone-Iod..
Colchicine Probiotics
Conv. Plasma Proxalutamide
Curcumin Quercetin
Favipiravir Remdesivir
Fluvoxamine Sotrovimab
Hydroxychloro.. Vitamin A
Iota-carragee.. Vitamin C
Ivermectin Vitamin D
Melatonin Zinc

Other Adoption
Aspirin
Bamlanivimab
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Casirivimab/i..
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychloro..
Iota-carragee..
Ivermectin
Melatonin
Metformin
Molnupiravir
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Povidone-Iod..
Probiotics
Proxalutamide
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Sotrovimab
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Zinc
Ivermectin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 63 studies
https://ivmmeta.com/
Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 66% [52‑76%] and 86% [75‑92%] improvement for early treatment and prophylaxis, with similar results after exclusion based sensitivity analysis (which excludes all of the GMK/BBC team studies), with primary outcomes, and after restriction to peer-reviewed studies or Randomized Controlled Trials.
Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, recovery, cases, and viral clearance. 30 studies show statistically significant improvements in isolation.
Results are very robust — in worst case exclusion sensitivity analysis 52 of 63 studies must be excluded to avoid finding statistically significant efficacy.
While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 25% of ivermectin studies show zero events in the treatment arm.
Multiple treatments are typically used in combination, and other treatments could be more effective, including monoclonal antibodies which may be available in countries not recommending ivermectin (sotrovimab, casirivimab/imdevimab, and bamlanivimab/etesevimab).
Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used, including treatments, as supported by Pfizer [Pfizer, TrialSiteNews]. Denying the efficacy of treatments increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
Studies Prophylaxis Early treatment Late treatment PatientsAuthors
All studies 63 86% [75‑92%] 66% [52‑76%] 36% [21‑48%] 47,461 625
Peer-reviewedPeer-reviewed 43 86% [74‑93%] 69% [51‑81%] 38% [16‑55%] 17,036 460
With GMK/BBC exclusions 47 84% [69‑91%] 73% [63‑80%] 45% [22‑61%] 37,558 518
Randomized Controlled TrialsRCTs 30 84% [25‑96%] 62% [43‑75%] 20% [-6‑39%] 6,368 357
Percentage improvement with ivermectin treatment
There is evidence of a negative publication bias, and the probability that an ineffective treatment generated results as positive as the 63 studies is estimated to be 1 in 122 billion.
Over 20 countries have adopted ivermectin for COVID-19. The evidence base is much larger and has much lower conflict of interest than typically used to approve drugs.
All data to reproduce this paper and sources are in the appendix. See [Bryant, Hariyanto, Kory, Lawrie, Nardelli] for other meta analyses with similar results confirming efficacy.
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Kory et al.69%0.31 [0.20-0.47]Improvement, RR [CI]Bryant et al.62%0.38 [0.19-0.73]Lawrie et al.83%0.17 [0.08-0.35]Nardelli et al.79%0.21 [0.11-0.36]Hariyanto et al.69%0.31 [0.15-0.62]WHO (OR)81%0.19 [0.09-0.36]ivmmeta55%0.45 [0.33-0.62]Ivermectin meta analysis mortality resultsivmmeta.com Oct 17, 2021Favors ivermectinFavors control
Evidence base used for other COVID-19 approvals
MedicationStudiesPatientsImprovement
Budesonide (UK)11,77917%
Remdesivir (USA EUA)11,06331%
Casirivimab/i.. (USA EUA)179966%
Ivermectin evidence6347,437 65% [57‑73%]
    
  
A
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Chowdhury (RCT)81%0.19 [0.01-3.96]14mghosp.0/602/56OT​1 CT​2Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlEspitia-Hernandez70%0.30 [0.16-0.55]12mgrecov. time28 (n)7 (n)CT​2Carvallo85%0.15 [0.02-1.28]36mgdeath1/323/14CT​2Mahmud (DB RCT)86%0.14 [0.01-2.75]12mgdeath0/1833/183CT​2Szente Fonseca-14%1.14 [0.75-1.66]24mghosp.340 (n)377 (n)Cadegiani78%0.22 [0.01-4.48]42mgdeath0/1102/137CT​2Ahmed (DB RCT)85%0.15 [0.01-2.70]48mgsymptoms0/173/19Chaccour (DB RCT)96%0.04 [0.00-1.01]28mgsymptoms12 (n)12 (n)Afsar98%0.02 [0.00-0.20]48mgsymptoms0/377/53Babalola (DB RCT)64%0.36 [0.10-1.27]24mgviral+40 (n)20 (n)OT​1Ravikirti (DB RCT)89%0.11 [0.01-2.05]24mgdeath0/554/57Bukhari (RCT)82%0.18 [0.07-0.46]12mgviral+4/4125/45Mohan (DB RCT)62%0.38 [0.08-1.75]28mgno recov.2/406/45Biber (DB RCT)70%0.30 [0.03-2.76]36mghosp.1/473/42Elalfy87%0.13 [0.06-0.27]36mgviral+7/6244/51CT​2López-Me.. (DB RCT)67%0.33 [0.01-8.11]84mgdeath0/2001/198Roy6%0.94 [0.52-1.93]n/arecov. time14 (n)15 (n)CT​2Chahla (CLUS. RCT)87%0.13 [0.03-0.54]24mgno disch.2/11020/144Mourya89%0.11 [0.05-0.25]48mgviral+5/5047/50Loue (QR)70%0.30 [0.04-2.20]14mgdeath1/105/15Merino (QR)74%0.26 [0.11-0.57]24mghosp.population-based cohortFaisal (RCT)68%0.32 [0.14-0.72]48mgno recov.6/5019/50Aref (RCT)63%0.37 [0.22-0.61]n/arecov. time57 (n)57 (n)Krolewiecki (RCT)-152%2.52 [0.11-58.1]168mgventilation1/270/14Vallejos (DB RCT)-33%1.33 [0.30-5.72]24mgdeath4/2503/251Together.. (DB RCT)18%0.82 [0.44-1.52]84mgdeath18/67722/678Buonfrate (DB RCT)-600%7.00 [0.39-126]336mghosp.4/580/29Mayer55%0.45 [0.32-0.63]151mgdeath3,266 (n)17,966 (n)Tau​2 = 0.37; I​2 = 63.1%Early treatment66%0.34 [0.24-0.48]56/5,873219/20,58566% improvementShouman (RCT)91%0.09 [0.03-0.23]36mgsymp. case15/20359/101Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (1m)TreatmentControlCarvallo96%0.04 [0.00-0.63]14mgcases0/13111/98CT​2Behera54%0.46 [0.29-0.71]42mgcases41/117145/255Carvallo100%0.00 [0.00-0.02]48mgcases0/788237/407CT​2Hellwig (ECO.)78%0.22 [0.05-0.89]14mgcasesecologicalBernigaud99%0.01 [0.00-0.10]84mgdeath0/69150/3,062Alam91%0.09 [0.04-0.25]12mgcases4/5844/60Vallejos73%0.27 [0.15-0.48]48mgcases13/38961/486MD​3Chahla (RCT)95%0.05 [0.00-0.80]48mgm/s case0/11710/117CT​2Behera83%0.17 [0.12-0.23]42mgcases45/2,199133/1,147Tanioka (ECO.)88%0.12 [0.03-0.51]14mgdeathecologicalSeet (CLUS. RCT)50%0.50 [0.33-0.76]12mgsymp. case32/61764/619OT​1Morgenstern (PSM)80%0.20 [0.01-4.15]56mghosp.0/2712/271Mondal88%0.12 [0.01-0.55]n/asymp. case128 (n)1,342 (n)Tau​2 = 0.59; I​2 = 83.9%Prophylaxis86%0.14 [0.08-0.25]150/5,087916/7,96586% improvementAll studies75%0.25 [0.19-0.34]206/10,9601,135/28,55075% improvementIvermectin COVID-19 early treatment and prophylaxis studiesivmmeta.com Oct 17, 20211 OT: ivermectin vs. other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment3 MD: minimal detail available currentlyTau​2 = 0.48; I​2 = 75.7%; Z = 9.06Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendixFavors ivermectinFavors control
    
  
B
    
  
C
    
  
D
Figure 1. A. Random effects meta-analysis excluding late treatment. This plot shows pooled effects, analysis for individual outcomes is below, and more details on pooled effects can be found in the heterogeneity section. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. Simplified dosages are shown for comparison, these are the total dose in the first four days for treatment, and the monthly dose for prophylaxis, for a 70kg person. For details of effect extraction and full dosage information see the appendix. B. Scatter plot showing the distribution of effects reported in early treatment studies and in all studies. C and D. Chronological history of all reported effects, with the probability that the observed frequency of positive results occurred due to random chance from an ineffective treatment.
Introduction
We analyze all significant studies concerning the use of ivermectin for COVID-19. Search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), all individual study data, PRISMA answers, and statistical methods are detailed in Appendix 1. We present random effects meta-analysis results for all studies, for studies within each treatment stage, for mortality results, for COVID-19 case results, for viral clearance results, for peer-reviewed studies, for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), and after exclusions.
We also perform a simple analysis of the distribution of study effects. If treatment was not effective, the observed effects would be randomly distributed (or more likely to be negative if treatment is harmful). We can compute the probability that the observed percentage of positive results (or higher) could occur due to chance with an ineffective treatment (the probability of >= k heads in n coin tosses, or the one-sided sign test / binomial test). Analysis of publication bias is important and adjustments may be needed if there is a bias toward publishing positive results.
Figure 2 shows stages of possible treatment for COVID-19. Prophylaxis refers to regularly taking medication before becoming sick, in order to prevent or minimize infection. Early Treatment refers to treatment immediately or soon after symptoms appear, while Late Treatment refers to more delayed treatment.
Figure 2. Treatment stages.
Results
Figure 3, 4, and 5 show results by treatment stage. Figure 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 show forest plots for a random effects meta-analysis of all studies with pooled effects, and for studies reporting mortality results, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization, recovery, COVID-19 cases, and viral clearance results only. Figure 14 shows results for peer reviewed trials only, and the supplementary data contains peer reviewed results after exclusions. Table 1 summarizes the results.
Treatment timeNumber of studies reporting positive effects Total number of studiesPercentage of studies reporting positive effects Probability of an equal or greater percentage of positive results from an ineffective treatmentRandom effects meta-analysis results
Early treatment 24 28 85.7% 1 in 11 thousand 66% improvement
RR 0.34 [0.24‑0.48] p < 0.0001
Late treatment 19 21 90.5% 1 in 9 thousand 36% improvement
RR 0.64 [0.52‑0.79] p < 0.0001
Prophylaxis 14 14 100% 1 in 16 thousand 86% improvement
RR 0.14 [0.08‑0.25] p < 0.0001
All studies 57 63 90.5% 1 in 122 billion 65% improvement
RR 0.35 [0.27‑0.43] p < 0.0001
Table 1. Results by treatment stage.
    
  
Figure 3. Results by treatment stage.
    
  
    
  
Figure 4. Chronological history of early and late treatment results, with the probability that the observed frequency of positive results occurred due to random chance from an ineffective treatment.
Figure 5. Chronological history of prophylaxis results.
    
  
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Chowdhury (RCT)81%0.19 [0.01-3.96]14mghosp.0/602/56OT​1 CT​2Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlEspitia-Hernandez70%0.30 [0.16-0.55]12mgrecov. time28 (n)7 (n)CT​2Carvallo85%0.15 [0.02-1.28]36mgdeath1/323/14CT​2Mahmud (DB RCT)86%0.14 [0.01-2.75]12mgdeath0/1833/183CT​2Szente Fonseca-14%1.14 [0.75-1.66]24mghosp.340 (n)377 (n)Cadegiani78%0.22 [0.01-4.48]42mgdeath0/1102/137CT​2Ahmed (DB RCT)85%0.15 [0.01-2.70]48mgsymptoms0/173/19Chaccour (DB RCT)96%0.04 [0.00-1.01]28mgsymptoms12 (n)12 (n)Afsar98%0.02 [0.00-0.20]48mgsymptoms0/377/53Babalola (DB RCT)64%0.36 [0.10-1.27]24mgviral+40 (n)20 (n)OT​1Ravikirti (DB RCT)89%0.11 [0.01-2.05]24mgdeath0/554/57Bukhari (RCT)82%0.18 [0.07-0.46]12mgviral+4/4125/45Mohan (DB RCT)62%0.38 [0.08-1.75]28mgno recov.2/406/45Biber (DB RCT)70%0.30 [0.03-2.76]36mghosp.1/473/42Elalfy87%0.13 [0.06-0.27]36mgviral+7/6244/51CT​2López-Me.. (DB RCT)67%0.33 [0.01-8.11]84mgdeath0/2001/198Roy6%0.94 [0.52-1.93]n/arecov. time14 (n)15 (n)CT​2Chahla (CLUS. RCT)87%0.13 [0.03-0.54]24mgno disch.2/11020/144Mourya89%0.11 [0.05-0.25]48mgviral+5/5047/50Loue (QR)70%0.30 [0.04-2.20]14mgdeath1/105/15Merino (QR)74%0.26 [0.11-0.57]24mghosp.population-based cohortFaisal (RCT)68%0.32 [0.14-0.72]48mgno recov.6/5019/50Aref (RCT)63%0.37 [0.22-0.61]n/arecov. time57 (n)57 (n)Krolewiecki (RCT)-152%2.52 [0.11-58.1]168mgventilation1/270/14Vallejos (DB RCT)-33%1.33 [0.30-5.72]24mgdeath4/2503/251Together.. (DB RCT)18%0.82 [0.44-1.52]84mgdeath18/67722/678Buonfrate (DB RCT)-600%7.00 [0.39-126]336mghosp.4/580/29Mayer55%0.45 [0.32-0.63]151mgdeath3,266 (n)17,966 (n)Tau​2 = 0.37; I​2 = 63.1%Early treatment66%0.34 [0.24-0.48]56/5,873219/20,58566% improvementGorial71%0.29 [0.01-5.76]14mgdeath0/162/71Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlKishoria (RCT)-8%1.08 [0.57-2.02]12mgno disch.11/197/13Podder (RCT)16%0.84 [0.55-1.12]14mgrecov. time32 (n)30 (n)Khan87%0.13 [0.02-1.00]12mgdeath1/1159/133Chachar (RCT)10%0.90 [0.44-1.83]36mgno recov.9/2510/25Soto-Becerra17%0.83 [0.71-0.97]14mgdeath92/2031,438/2,630Rajter (PSM)46%0.54 [0.27-0.99]14mgdeath13/9824/98Hashim (SB RCT)92%0.08 [0.00-1.44]28mgdeath0/596/70CT​2Camprubí40%0.60 [0.18-2.01]14mgventilation3/135/13Spoorthi21%0.79 [0.64-0.98]n/arecov. time50 (n)50 (n)CT​2Budhiraja99%0.01 [0.00-0.15]n/adeath0/34103/942Okumuş (DB RCT)33%0.67 [0.27-1.64]56mgdeath6/309/30Shahbazn.. (DB RCT)-197%2.97 [0.13-70.5]14mgdeath1/350/34Lima-Morales78%0.22 [0.12-0.41]12mgdeath15/48152/287CT​2Gonzalez (DB RCT)14%0.86 [0.29-2.56]12mgdeath5/366/37Pott-Junior (RCT)85%0.15 [0.01-1.93]14mgventilation1/271/4Huvemek (DB RCT)32%0.68 [0.38-1.23]84mgno improv.13/5019/50Ahsan50%0.50 [0.28-0.90]21mgdeath17/11017/55CT​2Abd-Elsalam (RCT)25%0.75 [0.17-3.06]36mgdeath3/824/82Hazan86%0.14 [0.01-2.19]24mgdeath0/24syntheticCT​2 SC​4Elavarasi20%0.80 [0.61-1.06]n/adeath48/283311/1,475Tau​2 = 0.08; I​2 = 54.8%Late treatment36%0.64 [0.52-0.79]238/1,8222,023/6,12936% improvementShouman (RCT)91%0.09 [0.03-0.23]36mgsymp. case15/20359/101Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (1m)TreatmentControlCarvallo96%0.04 [0.00-0.63]14mgcases0/13111/98CT​2Behera54%0.46 [0.29-0.71]42mgcases41/117145/255Carvallo100%0.00 [0.00-0.02]48mgcases0/788237/407CT​2Hellwig (ECO.)78%0.22 [0.05-0.89]14mgcasesecologicalBernigaud99%0.01 [0.00-0.10]84mgdeath0/69150/3,062Alam91%0.09 [0.04-0.25]12mgcases4/5844/60Vallejos73%0.27 [0.15-0.48]48mgcases13/38961/486MD​3Chahla (RCT)95%0.05 [0.00-0.80]48mgm/s case0/11710/117CT​2Behera83%0.17 [0.12-0.23]42mgcases45/2,199133/1,147Tanioka (ECO.)88%0.12 [0.03-0.51]14mgdeathecologicalSeet (CLUS. RCT)50%0.50 [0.33-0.76]12mgsymp. case32/61764/619OT​1Morgenstern (PSM)80%0.20 [0.01-4.15]56mghosp.0/2712/271Mondal88%0.12 [0.01-0.55]n/asymp. case128 (n)1,342 (n)Tau​2 = 0.59; I​2 = 83.9%Prophylaxis86%0.14 [0.08-0.25]150/5,087916/7,96586% improvementAll studies65%0.35 [0.27-0.43]444/12,7823,158/34,67965% improvementAll 63 ivermectin COVID-19 studiesivmmeta.com Oct 17, 20211 OT: ivermectin vs. other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment3 MD: minimal detail available currently4 SC: study uses synthetic control armTau​2 = 0.43; I​2 = 81.0%; Z = 9.19Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendixFavors ivermectinFavors control
Figure 6. Random effects meta-analysis for all studies. This plot shows pooled effects, analysis for individual outcomes is below, and more details on pooled effects can be found in the heterogeneity section. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. Simplified dosages are shown for comparison, these are the total dose in the first four days for treatment, and the monthly dose for prophylaxis, for a 70kg person. For details of effect extraction and full dosage information see the appendix.
    
  
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Carvallo85%0.15 [0.02-1.28]36mg1/323/14CT​1Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlMahmud (DB RCT)86%0.14 [0.01-2.75]12mg0/1833/183CT​1Cadegiani78%0.22 [0.01-4.48]42mg0/1102/137CT​1Ravikirti (DB RCT)89%0.11 [0.01-2.05]24mg0/554/57López-Me.. (DB RCT)67%0.33 [0.01-8.11]84mg0/2001/198Loue (QR)70%0.30 [0.04-2.20]14mg1/105/15Vallejos (DB RCT)-33%1.33 [0.30-5.72]24mg4/2503/251Together.. (DB RCT)18%0.82 [0.44-1.52]84mg18/67722/678Mayer55%0.45 [0.32-0.63]151mg3,266 (n)17,966 (n)Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 1.7%Early treatment50%0.50 [0.37-0.67]24/4,78343/19,49950% improvementGorial71%0.29 [0.01-5.76]14mg0/162/71Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlKhan87%0.13 [0.02-1.00]12mg1/1159/133Soto-Becerra17%0.83 [0.71-0.97]14mg92/2031,438/2,630Rajter (PSM)46%0.54 [0.27-0.99]14mg13/9824/98Hashim (SB RCT)92%0.08 [0.00-1.44]28mg0/596/70CT​1Budhiraja99%0.01 [0.00-0.15]n/a0/34103/942Okumuş (DB RCT)33%0.67 [0.27-1.64]56mg6/309/30Shahbazn.. (DB RCT)-197%2.97 [0.13-70.5]14mg1/350/34Lima-Morales78%0.22 [0.12-0.41]12mg15/48152/287CT​1Gonzalez (DB RCT)14%0.86 [0.29-2.56]12mg5/366/37Ahsan50%0.50 [0.28-0.90]21mg17/11017/55CT​1Abd-Elsalam (RCT)25%0.75 [0.17-3.06]36mg3/824/82Hazan86%0.14 [0.01-2.19]24mg0/24syntheticCT​1 SC​2Elavarasi20%0.80 [0.61-1.06]n/a48/283311/1,475Tau​2 = 0.19; I​2 = 67.8%Late treatment49%0.51 [0.36-0.73]201/1,6061,981/5,94449% improvementBernigaud99%0.01 [0.00-0.10]84mg0/69150/3,062Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (1m)TreatmentControlTanioka (ECO.)88%0.12 [0.03-0.51]14mgecologicalTau​2 = 2.94; I​2 = 69.8%Prophylaxis96%0.04 [0.00-0.59]0/69150/3,06296% improvementAll studies55%0.45 [0.33-0.62]225/6,4582,174/28,50555% improvementAll 25 ivermectin COVID-19 mortality resultsivmmeta.com Oct 17, 20211 CT: study uses combined treatment2 SC: study uses synthetic control armTau​2 = 0.22; I​2 = 66.2%; Z = 5.04Favors ivermectinFavors control
Figure 7. Random effects meta-analysis for mortality results only.
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Cadegiani94%0.06 [0.00-0.99]42mg0/1109/137CT​1Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlRavikirti (DB RCT)79%0.21 [0.03-1.72]24mg1/555/57Krolewiecki (RCT)-152%2.52 [0.11-58.1]168mg1/270/14Vallejos (DB RCT)-33%1.33 [0.30-5.72]24mg4/2503/251Tau​2 = 1.10; I​2 = 45.4%Early treatment51%0.49 [0.11-2.27]6/44217/45951% improvementRajter (PSM)64%0.36 [0.12-1.10]14mg4/9811/98Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlCamprubí40%0.60 [0.18-2.01]14mg3/135/13Shahbazn.. (DB RCT)-94%1.94 [0.18-20.4]14mg2/351/34Lima-Morales52%0.48 [0.20-1.18]12mg8/43411/287CT​1Pott-Junior (RCT)85%0.15 [0.01-1.93]14mg1/271/4Abd-Elsalam (RCT)0%1.00 [0.21-4.81]36mg3/823/82Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Late treatment48%0.52 [0.31-0.90]21/68932/51848% improvementAll studies46%0.54 [0.33-0.86]27/1,13149/97746% improvementAll 10 ivermectin COVID-19 mechanical ventilation resultsivmmeta.com Oct 17, 20211 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 2.56Favors ivermectinFavors control
Figure 8. Random effects meta-analysis for mechanical ventilation results only.
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Ravikirti (DB RCT)14%0.86 [0.28-2.67]24mg5/556/57Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlMayer66%0.34 [0.22-0.51]151mg3,266 (n)17,966 (n)Tau​2 = 0.24; I​2 = 56.5%Early treatment53%0.47 [0.20-1.10]5/3,3216/18,02353% improvementKhan89%0.11 [0.01-0.80]12mg1/11511/133Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlCamprubí33%0.67 [0.13-3.35]14mg2/133/13Pott-Junior (RCT)85%0.15 [0.01-1.93]14mg1/271/4Tau​2 = 0.13; I​2 = 10.6%Late treatment73%0.27 [0.08-0.91]4/15515/15073% improvementAll studies61%0.39 [0.23-0.66]9/3,47621/18,17361% improvementAll 5 ivermectin COVID-19 ICU resultsivmmeta.com Oct 17, 2021Tau​2 = 0.08; I​2 = 16.5%; Z = 3.48Favors ivermectinFavors control
Figure 9. Random effects meta-analysis for ICU admission results only.
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Chowdhury (RCT)81%0.19 [0.01-3.96]14mghosp.0/602/56OT​1 CT​2Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlSzente Fonseca-14%1.14 [0.75-1.66]24mghosp.340 (n)377 (n)Cadegiani98%0.02 [0.00-0.33]42mghosp.0/11027/137CT​2Biber (DB RCT)70%0.30 [0.03-2.76]36mghosp.1/473/42Merino (QR)74%0.26 [0.11-0.57]24mghosp.population-based cohortVallejos (DB RCT)33%0.67 [0.34-1.28]24mghosp.14/25021/251Buonfrate (DB RCT)-600%7.00 [0.39-126]336mghosp.4/580/29Tau​2 = 0.63; I​2 = 69.4%Early treatment51%0.49 [0.21-1.12]19/86553/89251% improvementGorial42%0.58 [0.45-0.75]14mghosp. time16 (n)71 (n)Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlKhan40%0.60 [0.44-0.81]12mghosp. time115 (n)133 (n)Spoorthi16%0.84 [0.74-0.96]n/ahosp. time50 (n)50 (n)CT​2Shahbazn.. (DB RCT)15%0.85 [0.74-0.97]14mghosp. time35 (n)34 (n)Lima-Morales67%0.33 [0.22-0.47]12mghosp.44/48189/287CT​2Gonzalez (DB RCT)-20%1.20 [0.77-1.87]12mghosp. time36 (n)37 (n)Abd-Elsalam (RCT)20%0.80 [0.63-1.03]36mghosp. time82 (n)82 (n)Hazan93%0.07 [0.00-1.04]24mghosp.0/24syntheticCT​2 SC​3Tau​2 = 0.08; I​2 = 84.1%Late treatment32%0.68 [0.55-0.86]44/83989/69432% improvementMorgenstern (PSM)80%0.20 [0.01-4.15]56mghosp.0/2712/271Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (1m)TreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Prophylaxis80%0.20 [0.01-4.15]0/2712/27180% improvementAll studies34%0.66 [0.53-0.82]63/1,975144/1,85734% improvementAll 16 ivermectin COVID-19 hospitalization resultsivmmeta.com Oct 17, 20211 OT: ivermectin vs. other treatment