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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Ivermectin  COVID-19 treatment studies for Ivermectin  C19 studies: Ivermectin  Ivermectin   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Ivermectin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 64 studies
https://ivmmeta.com/
Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 68% [52‑78%] and 86% [75‑92%] improvement for early treatment and prophylaxis, with similar results after exclusion based sensitivity analysis and restriction to peer-reviewed studies or Randomized Controlled Trials.
Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, hospitalization, recovery, cases, and viral clearance. 29 studies show statistically significant improvements in isolation.
Results are very robust — in worst case exclusion sensitivity analysis 53 of 64 studies must be excluded to avoid finding statistically significant efficacy.
Studies Prophylaxis Early treatment Late treatment PatientsAuthors
All studies 64 86% [75‑92%] 68% [52‑78%] 40% [24‑52%] 26,509 641
Peer-reviewedPeer-reviewed 45 86% [74‑93%] 70% [52‑81%] 43% [21‑59%] 17,316 490
Randomized Controlled TrialsRCTs 32 84% [25‑96%] 63% [45‑75%] 30% [2‑50%] 6,648 387
Percentage improvement with ivermectin treatment
While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 27% of ivermectin studies show zero events in the treatment arm.
Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Those denying the efficacy of treatments share responsibility for the increased risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and the increased mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
There is evidence of a negative publication bias, and the probability that an ineffective treatment generated results as positive as the 64 studies is estimated to be 1 in 222 billion.
The evidence base is much larger and has much lower conflict of interest than typically used to approve drugs.
All data to reproduce this paper and sources are in the appendix. See [Bryant, Hariyanto, Kory, Lawrie, Nardelli] for other meta analyses with similar results confirming efficacy.
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Kory et al.69%0.31 [0.20-0.47]Improvement, RR [CI]Bryant et al.62%0.38 [0.19-0.73]Lawrie et al.83%0.17 [0.08-0.35]Nardelli et al.79%0.21 [0.11-0.36]Hariyanto et al.69%0.31 [0.15-0.62]WHO (OR)81%0.19 [0.09-0.36]ivmmeta58%0.42 [0.30-0.59]Ivermectin meta analysis mortality resultsivmmeta.com Sep 19, 2021Favors ivermectinFavors control
Evidence base used for other COVID-19 approvals
MedicationStudiesPatientsImprovement
Budesonide (UK)11,77917%
Remdesivir (USA EUA)11,06331%
Casirivimab/i.. (USA EUA)179966%
Ivermectin evidence6426,485 67% [58‑74%]
    
  
A
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Chowdhury (RCT)81%0.19 [0.01-3.96]14mghosp.0/602/56OT​1 CT​2Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlEspitia-Hernandez70%0.30 [0.16-0.55]12mgrecov. time28 (n)7 (n)CT​2Carvallo85%0.15 [0.02-1.28]36mgdeath1/323/14CT​2Mahmud (DB RCT)86%0.14 [0.01-2.75]12mgdeath0/1833/183CT​2Szente Fonseca-14%1.14 [0.75-1.66]24mghosp.340 (n)377 (n)Cadegiani78%0.22 [0.01-4.48]42mgdeath0/1102/137CT​2Ahmed (DB RCT)85%0.15 [0.01-2.70]48mgsymptoms0/173/19Chaccour (DB RCT)96%0.04 [0.00-1.01]28mgsymptoms12 (n)12 (n)Afsar98%0.02 [0.00-0.20]48mgsymptoms0/377/53Babalola (DB RCT)64%0.36 [0.10-1.27]24mgviral+40 (n)20 (n)OT​1Ravikirti (DB RCT)89%0.11 [0.01-2.05]24mgdeath0/554/57Bukhari (RCT)82%0.18 [0.07-0.46]12mgviral+4/4125/45Samaha (RCT)86%0.14 [0.01-2.70]12mghosp.0/503/50Mohan (DB RCT)62%0.38 [0.08-1.75]28mgno recov.2/406/45Biber (DB RCT)70%0.30 [0.03-2.76]36mghosp.1/473/42Elalfy87%0.13 [0.06-0.27]36mgviral+7/6244/51CT​2López-Me.. (DB RCT)67%0.33 [0.01-8.11]84mgdeath0/2001/198Roy6%0.94 [0.52-1.93]n/arecov. time14 (n)15 (n)CT​2Chahla (CLUS. RCT)87%0.13 [0.03-0.54]24mgno disch.2/11020/144Mourya89%0.11 [0.05-0.25]48mgviral+5/5047/50Loue (QR)70%0.30 [0.04-2.20]14mgdeath1/105/15Merino (QR)74%0.26 [0.11-0.57]24mghosp.population-based cohortFaisal (RCT)68%0.32 [0.14-0.72]48mgno recov.6/5019/50Aref (RCT)63%0.37 [0.22-0.61]n/arecov. time57 (n)57 (n)Krolewiecki (RCT)-152%2.52 [0.11-58.1]168mgventilation1/270/14Vallejos (DB RCT)-33%1.33 [0.30-5.72]24mgdeath4/2503/251Together.. (DB RCT)18%0.82 [0.44-1.52]84mgdeath18/67722/678Buonfrate (DB RCT)-600%7.00 [0.39-126]336mghosp.4/580/29Tau​2 = 0.49; I​2 = 63.2%Early treatment68%0.32 [0.22-0.48]56/2,657222/2,66968% improvementShouman (RCT)91%0.09 [0.03-0.23]36mgsymp. case15/20359/101Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (1m)TreatmentControlCarvallo96%0.04 [0.00-0.63]14mgcases0/13111/98CT​2Behera54%0.46 [0.29-0.71]42mgcases41/117145/255Carvallo100%0.00 [0.00-0.02]48mgcases0/788237/407CT​2Hellwig (ECO.)78%0.22 [0.05-0.89]14mgcasesecologicalBernigaud99%0.01 [0.00-0.10]84mgdeath0/69150/3,062Alam91%0.09 [0.04-0.25]12mgcases4/5844/60Vallejos73%0.27 [0.15-0.48]48mgcases13/38961/486MD​3Chahla (RCT)95%0.05 [0.00-0.80]48mgm/s case0/11710/117CT​2Behera83%0.17 [0.12-0.23]42mgcases45/2,199133/1,147Tanioka (ECO.)88%0.12 [0.03-0.51]14mgdeathecologicalSeet (CLUS. RCT)50%0.50 [0.33-0.76]12mgsymp. case32/61764/619OT​1Morgenstern (PSM)80%0.20 [0.01-4.15]56mghosp.0/2712/271Mondal88%0.12 [0.01-0.55]n/asymp. case128 (n)1,342 (n)Tau​2 = 0.59; I​2 = 83.9%Prophylaxis86%0.14 [0.08-0.25]150/5,087916/7,96586% improvementAll studies76%0.24 [0.18-0.33]206/7,7441,138/10,63476% improvementIvermectin COVID-19 early treatment and prophylaxis studiesivmmeta.com Sep 19, 20211 OT: ivermectin vs. other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment3 MD: minimal detail available currentlyTau​2 = 0.54; I​2 = 75.1%; Z = 8.85Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendixFavors ivermectinFavors control
    
  
B
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+All studiesEarly treatmentmin, Q1, median, Q3, maxLower RiskIncreased Riskivmmeta.com Sep 19, 2021
    
  
C
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Chowdhuryhosp., p=0.23Espitia-Hernandezrecov. time, p<0.0001Carvallodeath, p=0.08Mahmuddeath, p=0.25Szente Fonsecahosp., p=0.45Cadegianideath, p=0.50Ahmedsymptoms, p=0.09Chaccoursymptoms, p<0.05Afsarviral- time, p=0.0008Babalolaviral+, p=0.11Ravikirtideath, p=0.12Bukhariviral+, p<0.0001Samahahosp., p=0.24Mohanno recov., p=0.27Biberhosp., p=0.34Elalfyviral+, p<0.0001López-Medinadeath, p=0.50Royrecov. time, p=0.87Chahlano disch., p=0.004Mouryaviral+, p<0.0001Louedeath, p=0.34Merinohosp., p<0.001Faisalno recov., p=0.005Arefrecov. time, p=0.0001Krolewieckiventilation, p=1.00Vallejosdeath, p=0.70Together Trialdeath, p=0.54Buonfratehosp., p=0.30Early treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskivmmeta.com Sep 19, 2021Probability results fromineffective treatmentJan 81 in 100Feb 11 in 1 thousandMar 111 in 10 thousand
    
  
D
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Gorial, death, p=1.00Chowdhury, hosp., p=0.23Espitia-Hernandez, recov. time, p<0.0001Shouman, symp. case, p<0.001Kishoria, no disch., p=1.00Podder, recov. time, p=0.34Carvallo, death, p=0.08Khan, death, p=0.02Chachar, no recov., p=0.50Soto-Becerra, death, p=0.01Mahmud, death, p=0.25Rajter, death, p=0.04Carvallo, cases, p<0.0001Hashim, death, p=0.03Szente Fonseca, hosp., p=0.45Behera, cases, p<0.0001Cadegiani, death, p=0.50Camprubí, ventilation, p=0.67Spoorthi, recov. time, p=0.03Carvallo, cases, p<0.0001Budhiraja, death, p=0.04Niaee, death, p=0.001Hellwig, cases, p<0.02Bernigaud, death, p=0.08Ahmed, symptoms, p=0.09Chaccour, symptoms, p<0.05Afsar, viral- time, p=0.0008Alam, cases, p<0.0001Vallejos, cases, p<0.0001Babalola, viral+, p=0.11Ravikirti, death, p=0.12Chahla, m/s case, p=0.002Okumuş, death, p=0.55Bukhari, viral+, p<0.0001Samaha, hosp., p=0.24Shahbaznejad, death, p=1.00Mohan, no recov., p=0.27Lima-Morales, death, p<0.001Biber, hosp., p=0.34Behera, cases, p<0.001Elalfy, viral+, p<0.0001Gonzalez, death, p=1.00López-Medina, death, p=0.50Pott-Junior, ventilation, p=0.25Roy, recov. time, p=0.87Huvemek, no improv., p=0.28Tanioka, death, p=0.002Chahla, no disch., p=0.004Mourya, viral+, p<0.0001Seet, symp. case, p=0.01Morgenstern, hosp., p=0.50Loue, death, p=0.34Ahsan, death, p=0.03Merino, hosp., p<0.001Faisal, no recov., p=0.005Mondal, symp. case, p=0.006Abd-Elsalam, death, p=0.70Aref, recov. time, p=0.0001Krolewiecki, ventilation, p=1.00Vallejos, death, p=0.70Hazan, death, p=0.04Together Trial, death, p=0.54Elavarasi, death, p=0.12Buonfrate, hosp., p=0.30All studies% Lower Risk% Increased Riskivmmeta.com Sep 19, 2021Probability results fromineffective treatmentOct 81 in 100Nov 231 in 10 thousandDec 11 in 100 thousandDec 191 in 1 millionFeb 11 in 10 millionMar 81 in 1 billion
Figure 1. A. Random effects meta-analysis excluding late treatment. This plot shows pooled effects, analysis for individual outcomes is below, and more details on pooled effects can be found in the heterogeneity section. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. Simplified dosages are shown for comparison, these are the total dose in the first four days for treatment, and the monthly dose for prophylaxis, for a 70kg person. For details of effect extraction and full dosage information see the appendix. B. Scatter plot showing the distribution of effects reported in early treatment studies and in all studies. C and D. Chronological history of all reported effects, with the probability that the observed frequency of positive results occurred due to random chance from an ineffective treatment.
Introduction
We analyze all significant studies concerning the use of ivermectin for COVID-19. Search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), all individual study data, PRISMA answers, and statistical methods are detailed in Appendix 1. We present random effects meta-analysis results for all studies, for studies within each treatment stage, for mortality results, for COVID-19 case results, for viral clearance results, for peer-reviewed studies, for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), and after exclusions.
We also perform a simple analysis of the distribution of study effects. If treatment was not effective, the observed effects would be randomly distributed (or more likely to be negative if treatment is harmful). We can compute the probability that the observed percentage of positive results (or higher) could occur due to chance with an ineffective treatment (the probability of >= k heads in n coin tosses, or the one-sided sign test / binomial test). Analysis of publication bias is important and adjustments may be needed if there is a bias toward publishing positive results.
Figure 2 shows stages of possible treatment for COVID-19. Prophylaxis refers to regularly taking medication before becoming sick, in order to prevent or minimize infection. Early Treatment refers to treatment immediately or soon after symptoms appear, while Late Treatment refers to more delayed treatment.
Figure 2. Treatment stages.
Results
Figure 3, 4, and 5 show results by treatment stage. Figure 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 show forest plots for a random effects meta-analysis of all studies with pooled effects, and for studies reporting mortality results, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization, recovery, COVID-19 cases, and viral clearance results only. Figure 14 shows results for peer reviewed trials only and Figure 15 shows results restricted to serious outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the results.
Treatment timeNumber of studies reporting positive effects Total number of studiesPercentage of studies reporting positive effects Probability of an equal or greater percentage of positive results from an ineffective treatmentRandom effects meta-analysis results
Early treatment 24 28 85.7% 1 in 11 thousand 68% improvement
RR 0.32 [0.22‑0.48] p < 0.0001
Late treatment 20 22 90.9% 1 in 17 thousand 40% improvement
RR 0.60 [0.48‑0.76] p < 0.0001
Prophylaxis 14 14 100% 1 in 16 thousand 86% improvement
RR 0.14 [0.08‑0.25] p < 0.0001
All studies 58 64 90.6% 1 in 222 billion 67% improvement
RR 0.33 [0.26‑0.42] p < 0.0001
Table 1. Results by treatment stage.
    
  
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+All studiesLate treatmentEarly treatmentProphylaxismin, Q1, median, Q3, maxLower RiskIncreased Riskivmmeta.com Sep 19, 2021
Figure 3. Results by treatment stage.
    
  
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Chowdhuryhosp., p=0.23Espitia-Hernandezrecov. time, p<0.0001Carvallodeath, p=0.08Mahmuddeath, p=0.25Szente Fonsecahosp., p=0.45Cadegianideath, p=0.50Ahmedsymptoms, p=0.09Chaccoursymptoms, p<0.05Afsarviral- time, p=0.0008Babalolaviral+, p=0.11Ravikirtideath, p=0.12Bukhariviral+, p<0.0001Samahahosp., p=0.24Mohanno recov., p=0.27Biberhosp., p=0.34Elalfyviral+, p<0.0001López-Medinadeath, p=0.50Royrecov. time, p=0.87Chahlano disch., p=0.004Mouryaviral+, p<0.0001Louedeath, p=0.34Merinohosp., p<0.001Faisalno recov., p=0.005Arefrecov. time, p=0.0001Krolewieckiventilation, p=1.00Vallejosdeath, p=0.70Together Trialdeath, p=0.54Buonfratehosp., p=0.30Early treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskivmmeta.com Sep 19, 2021Probability results fromineffective treatmentJan 81 in 100Feb 11 in 1 thousandMar 111 in 10 thousand
    
  
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Gorialdeath, p=1.00Kishoriano disch., p=1.00Podderrecov. time, p=0.34Khandeath, p=0.02Chacharno recov., p=0.50Soto-Becerradeath, p=0.01Rajterdeath, p=0.04Hashimdeath, p=0.03Camprubíventilation, p=0.67Spoorthirecov. time, p=0.03Budhirajadeath, p=0.04Niaeedeath, p=0.001Okumuşdeath, p=0.55Shahbaznejaddeath, p=1.00Lima-Moralesdeath, p<0.001Gonzalezdeath, p=1.00Pott-Juniorventilation, p=0.25Huvemekno improv., p=0.28Ahsandeath, p=0.03Abd-Elsalamdeath, p=0.70Hazandeath, p=0.04Elavarasideath, p=0.12Late treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskivmmeta.com Sep 19, 2021Probability results fromineffective treatmentOct 251 in 20Nov 171 in 100Mar 241 in 1 thousandAug 111 in 10 thousand
Figure 4. Chronological history of early and late treatment results, with the probability that the observed frequency of positive results occurred due to random chance from an ineffective treatment.
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Shoumansymp. case, p<0.001Carvallocases, p<0.0001Beheracases, p<0.0001Carvallocases, p<0.0001Hellwigcases, p<0.02Bernigauddeath, p=0.08Alamcases, p<0.0001Vallejoscases, p<0.0001Chahlam/s case, p=0.002Beheracases, p<0.001Taniokadeath, p=0.002Seetsymp. case, p=0.01Morgensternhosp., p=0.50Mondalsymp. case, p=0.006Prophylaxis% Lower Risk% Increased Riskivmmeta.com Sep 19, 2021Probability results fromineffective treatmentNov 271 in 20Dec 141 in 100Feb 141 in 1 thousandMay 301 in 10 thousand
Figure 5. Chronological history of prophylaxis results.
    
  
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Chowdhury (RCT)81%0.19 [0.01-3.96]14mghosp.0/602/56OT​1 CT​2Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlEspitia-Hernandez70%0.30 [0.16-0.55]12mgrecov. time28 (n)7 (n)CT​2Carvallo85%0.15 [0.02-1.28]36mgdeath1/323/14CT​2Mahmud (DB RCT)86%0.14 [0.01-2.75]12mgdeath0/1833/183CT​2Szente Fonseca-14%1.14 [0.75-1.66]24mghosp.340 (n)377 (n)Cadegiani78%0.22 [0.01-4.48]42mgdeath0/1102/137CT​2Ahmed (DB RCT)85%0.15 [0.01-2.70]48mgsymptoms0/173/19Chaccour (DB RCT)96%0.04 [0.00-1.01]28mgsymptoms12 (n)12 (n)Afsar98%0.02 [0.00-0.20]48mgsymptoms0/377/53Babalola (DB RCT)64%0.36 [0.10-1.27]24mgviral+40 (n)20 (n)OT​1Ravikirti (DB RCT)89%0.11 [0.01-2.05]24mgdeath0/554/57Bukhari (RCT)82%0.18 [0.07-0.46]12mgviral+4/4125/45Samaha (RCT)86%0.14 [0.01-2.70]12mghosp.0/503/50Mohan (DB RCT)62%0.38 [0.08-1.75]28mgno recov.2/406/45Biber (DB RCT)70%0.30 [0.03-2.76]36mghosp.1/473/42Elalfy87%0.13 [0.06-0.27]36mgviral+7/6244/51CT​2López-Me.. (DB RCT)67%0.33 [0.01-8.11]84mgdeath0/2001/198Roy6%0.94 [0.52-1.93]n/arecov. time14 (n)15 (n)CT​2Chahla (CLUS. RCT)87%0.13 [0.03-0.54]24mgno disch.2/11020/144Mourya89%0.11 [0.05-0.25]48mgviral+5/5047/50Loue (QR)70%0.30 [0.04-2.20]14mgdeath1/105/15Merino (QR)74%0.26 [0.11-0.57]24mghosp.population-based cohortFaisal (RCT)68%0.32 [0.14-0.72]48mgno recov.6/5019/50Aref (RCT)63%0.37 [0.22-0.61]n/arecov. time57 (n)57 (n)Krolewiecki (RCT)-152%2.52 [0.11-58.1]168mgventilation1/270/14Vallejos (DB RCT)-33%1.33 [0.30-5.72]24mgdeath4/2503/251Together.. (DB RCT)18%0.82 [0.44-1.52]84mgdeath18/67722/678Buonfrate (DB RCT)-600%7.00 [0.39-126]336mghosp.4/580/29Tau​2 = 0.49; I​2 = 63.2%Early treatment68%0.32 [0.22-0.48]56/2,657222/2,66968% improvementGorial71%0.29 [0.01-5.76]14mgdeath0/162/71Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlKishoria (RCT)-8%1.08 [0.57-2.02]12mgno disch.11/197/13Podder (RCT)16%0.84 [0.55-1.12]14mgrecov. time32 (n)30 (n)Khan87%0.13 [0.02-1.00]12mgdeath1/1159/133Chachar (RCT)10%0.90 [0.44-1.83]36mgno recov.9/2510/25Soto-Becerra17%0.83 [0.71-0.97]14mgdeath92/2031,438/2,630Rajter (PSM)46%0.54 [0.27-0.99]14mgdeath13/9824/98Hashim (SB RCT)92%0.08 [0.00-1.44]28mgdeath0/596/70CT​2Camprubí40%0.60 [0.18-2.01]14mgventilation3/135/13Spoorthi21%0.79 [0.62-1.01]n/arecov. time50 (n)50 (n)CT​2Budhiraja99%0.01 [0.00-0.15]n/adeath0/34103/942Niaee (DB RCT)82%0.18 [0.06-0.55]28mgdeath4/12011/60Okumuş (DB RCT)33%0.67 [0.27-1.64]56mgdeath6/309/30Shahbazn.. (DB RCT)-197%2.97 [0.13-70.5]14mgdeath1/350/34Lima-Morales78%0.22 [0.12-0.41]12mgdeath15/48152/287CT​2Gonzalez (DB RCT)14%0.86 [0.29-2.56]12mgdeath5/366/37Pott-Junior (RCT)85%0.15 [0.01-1.93]14mgventilation1/271/4Huvemek (DB RCT)32%0.68 [0.38-1.23]84mgno improv.13/5019/50Ahsan50%0.50 [0.28-0.90]21mgdeath17/11017/55CT​2Abd-Elsalam (RCT)25%0.75 [0.17-3.06]36mgdeath3/824/82Hazan86%0.14 [0.01-2.19]24mgdeath0/24syntheticCT​2 SC​4Elavarasi20%0.80 [0.61-1.06]n/adeath48/283311/1,475Tau​2 = 0.11; I​2 = 58.3%Late treatment40%0.60 [0.48-0.76]242/1,9422,034/6,18940% improvementShouman (RCT)91%0.09 [0.03-0.23]36mgsymp. case15/20359/101Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (1m)TreatmentControlCarvallo96%0.04 [0.00-0.63]14mgcases0/13111/98CT​2Behera54%0.46 [0.29-0.71]42mgcases41/117145/255Carvallo100%0.00 [0.00-0.02]48mgcases0/788237/407CT​2Hellwig (ECO.)78%0.22 [0.05-0.89]14mgcasesecologicalBernigaud99%0.01 [0.00-0.10]84mgdeath0/69150/3,062Alam91%0.09 [0.04-0.25]12mgcases4/5844/60Vallejos73%0.27 [0.15-0.48]48mgcases13/38961/486MD​3Chahla (RCT)95%0.05 [0.00-0.80]48mgm/s case0/11710/117CT​2Behera83%0.17 [0.12-0.23]42mgcases45/2,199133/1,147Tanioka (ECO.)88%0.12 [0.03-0.51]14mgdeathecologicalSeet (CLUS. RCT)50%0.50 [0.33-0.76]12mgsymp. case32/61764/619OT​1Morgenstern (PSM)80%0.20 [0.01-4.15]56mghosp.0/2712/271Mondal88%0.12 [0.01-0.55]n/asymp. case128 (n)1,342 (n)Tau​2 = 0.59; I​2 = 83.9%Prophylaxis86%0.14 [0.08-0.25]150/5,087916/7,96586% improvementAll studies67%0.33 [0.26-0.42]448/9,6863,172/16,82367% improvementAll 64 ivermectin COVID-19 studiesivmmeta.com Sep 19, 20211 OT: ivermectin vs. other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment3 MD: minimal detail available currently4 SC: study uses synthetic control armTau​2 = 0.47; I​2 = 80.6%; Z = 9.17Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendixFavors ivermectinFavors control
Figure 6. Random effects meta-analysis for all studies. This plot shows pooled effects, analysis for individual outcomes is below, and more details on pooled effects can be found in the heterogeneity section. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. Simplified dosages are shown for comparison, these are the total dose in the first four days for treatment, and the monthly dose for prophylaxis, for a 70kg person. For details of effect extraction and full dosage information see the appendix.
    
  
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Carvallo85%0.15 [0.02-1.28]36mg1/323/14CT​1Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlMahmud (DB RCT)86%0.14 [0.01-2.75]12mg0/1833/183CT​1Cadegiani78%0.22 [0.01-4.48]42mg0/1102/137CT​1Ravikirti (DB RCT)89%0.11 [0.01-2.05]24mg0/554/57López-Me.. (DB RCT)67%0.33 [0.01-8.11]84mg0/2001/198Loue (QR)70%0.30 [0.04-2.20]14mg1/105/15Vallejos (DB RCT)-33%